Gens de couleur libres/ Free People of color

Gens de couleur

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Gens de couleur is a French term meaning “people of color.” This is often a short form of gens de couleur libres (“free people of color“). In practice, it can refer to creoles of color with Latin blood, and certain other free blacks.[1] The term was commonly used in France’s West Indian colonies prior to the abolition of slavery.

Before the Revolution broke out in Haiti, there were four distinct groups of people living in Saint-Domingue: whites, black slaves, the maroons (runaway slaves), and the free blacks (gens de couleur). There were approximately 28,000 gens de couleur in 1789. Roughly half of them were mulattoes, usually born of French men and slave women. There were similar such populations in Martinique and Guadeloupe.

The terms affranchis/anciens libres, and gens de couleur/mulâtres have different but largely overlapping meanings. Affranchis, a term that meant ex-slaves, was widely used by whites to refer to all free people of color in Saint-Domingue. After slavery ended in the colony, the term anciens libres (“the former free”) was widely used to refer to those people who were free prior to the general emancipation of 1793. Gens de couleur was another term applied to free people of color, but specifically to people of mixed French and African descent, as opposed to free blacks. This term was never used for enslaved people. Mulâtres (“mulattoes”) also referred to people of mixed French and African descent, and usually referred to free people because mulattoes were frequently set free by their white fathers, due to varying degrees of guilt or concern on the fathers’ part. (Nevertheless, there remained some mulatto slaves.)

The other affranchis, numbering approximately 12,000, were black slaves who either purchased their freedom or had had it given to them by their masters for one reason or another.

Regardless of their colour, affranchis could own plantations, and often owned large numbers of slaves themselves. The enslaved people were generally not friendly with the affranchis, who sometimes portrayed themselves as bulwarks against a slave uprising. As property owners themselves, affranchis sought very distinct lines set between their own class and that of slaves. Often working on their own account as artisans, shopkeepers or landowners, the gens de couleur frequently became quite prosperous, and many prided themselves on their European culture and descent. They were often well-educated in the French language, as distinct from the scorned Haitian Creole language used by slaves. Most gens de couleur were Roman Catholic, and many denounced the Vodoun religion originating in Africa.

Under the ancien régime, the free people of color were drastically limited in their freedoms and did not possess the same rights as white Frenchmen. Nevertheless most gens de couleur were pro-slavery, at least up to the time of the French Revolution. Equal rights for free people of colour became an early central issue of the Haitian Revolution, and indeed of the French Revolution itself.

Examples of affranchis prominent in the history of Saint-Domingue and the Haitian Revolution are Toussaint Louverture (a black ancien libre), Julien Raimond, Vincent Ogé, André Rigaud, Alexandre Pétion, and the Chevalier de Saint-Georges.

During the course of the Haitian Revolution, many wealthy gens de couleur left as refugees, whether for France, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Louisiana or elsewhere. Others, however, remained to play an influential role in Haitian politics.

Free people of color

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A free person of color in the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, is a person of full or partial African descent who was not enslaved. In the United States, such persons were referred to as “free Negroes,” though many were of mixed race (in the terminology of the day, mulattos). Free people of color was especially a term used in New Orleans and the former Louisiana Territory, where a third class of people developed. In Caribbean and Latin American slave societies, specific terms were used to refer to such mixed-race groups, usually with an attempt at classification by appearance or ancestry.

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[edit] History

Free people of color, or gens de couleur libre, played an important role in the history of New Orleans and the southern part of the state, former Louisiana Territory. When French settlers and traders first arrive in the colony, there were few French women. The men took enslaved women as concubines or common-law wives. As the colony grew, some French men or ethnic French still took mixed-race women as mistresses or placées before they married. In the period of French and Spanish rule, there were formal arrangements for placées, which often included a kind of dowry or property transfer to the young women, negotiated by their mothers. In addition, the men often paid for education of their natural children from these relationships, especially if they were sons. Free people of color became a separate class between the colonial French and Spanish and the enslaved workers. They often achieved education and some measure of wealth.

At one time the center of their residential community was the French Quarter. Many were educated, and owned property and their own businesses. They formed a third class in the slave society.[1]

Free people of color were an important part of the history of the Caribbean during the slave period. They achieved wealth and power particularly in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which became independent as Haiti in 1804. In Saint-Domingue, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and other French Caribbean colonies before slavery was abolished, they were known as gens de couleur, and affranchis. They were also an important part of the populations of British Jamaica, the Spanish Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, Cuba and Puerto Rico, and Portuguese Brazil.

[edit] Definition

There were many ways that a slave could become a free person of color. Many slave societies allowed masters to free their slaves. As the population of color became larger and more threatening to the white ruling class, governments put increasing restrictions on manumissions. These usually included taxes, requirements that some socially useful reason be cited for manumission, and requirements that the newly freed person show that he or she had some means of support. Masters might free their slaves for a variety of reasons, but the most common was family relationship between master and slave.

Throughout the slave societies of the Americas, some white male slaveowners took advantage of the subordinate status of their female slaves and required them to engage in sexual relations. In some places, especially in Caribbean and South American slave societies where there were few white women, these relationships might be acknowledged by the white man and some were common-law marriages of affection. In any case, slaveholders were more likely to free the children of these relationships than they were to free other slaves. Enslaved women who participated in these relationships also were sometimes freed.

Another common means of manumission was the payment of ransom, either by the slave, if the person had managed to obtain some resources, or by already free relatives. Sometimes masters, or the government, would free slaves without payment as a reward for some notable service: a slave who revealed slave conspiracies for uprisings was commonly rewarded with freedom.

Some enslaved black people, such as Charlotte Dupuy, turned to the law to petition for their freedom. Though enslaved black people, including Dupuy, had little success in getting courts to hear their appeals, these legal cases often created an ambiguous legal space, even if they did not always side in favor of the black defendants.[2] While Charlotte Dupuy’s case was nominally about her claim to freedom, the court had to assume the defendant’s freedom in order to acknowledge the petition, since enslaved people had no legal standing. For a greater discussion of the liminal space of freedom created by these court cases refer to Edlie Wong’s forthcoming Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel.[3]

Of course, many free people of color were born free. By the 19th century, there were flourishing families of free coloreds who had been free for generations. In the United States many of the “old issue” free people of color (those free before the Civil War) were descended from African Americans born free during the colonial period in Virginia. Most of those were descendants of white servant women who entered into relationships with African men, indentured servant, slave or free. Their relationships demonstrated the fluid nature of the early working class, before institutionalized slavery hardened lines between ethnic groups. Many of their descendants later migrated to the frontiers of North and South Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee, and west, as well as further south. Sometimes they formed isolated settlements in the frontier where they were relatively free of racial strictures common to the plantation areas. In many cases they were well received and respected on the frontier. Sometimes they identified as Indian or Portuguese, or their neighbors classified them that way, in an attempt to explain their physical characteristics that were different from northern Europeans.[4]

After the American Revolutionary War, a number of slaveholders in the North and Upper South freed their slaves in the period from 1783-1810. From the language of the deeds and wills, some were inspired by the Revolution’s ideals; others awarded service. In Virginia, Maryland and Delaware, Quakers and Moravians were influential in persuading slaveholders to free their slaves. The proportion of free blacks went from one percent before the Revolution to 10 percent by 1810 in the Upper South. By 1860, on the eve of the American Civil War, 91 percent of blacks in Delaware were free, and 49.7 percent of blacks in Maryland.[5]

Technically a maroon was also a free person of color. This term described slaves who had escaped and lived in areas outside settlements. Because maroons lived outside slave society, scholars regard them as quite different in character from free people of color, who made their way within societies.

Many people who lived as free within the slave society did not have formal liberty papers. In some cases these were runaways, who just hid in the towns among free people of color and tried to maintain a low profile. In other cases they were “living as free” with the permission of their master, sometimes in return for payment of rent or a share of money they earned by trades, but the master had never officially registered their liberty. Like maroons, these people were always at risk of losing their freedom.

[edit] Economic impact

This article is missing citations or needs footnotes. Please help add inline citations to guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (May 2008)

Free people of color filled an important niche in the economy of slave societies. In most places, they worked as artisans and small retail merchants in the towns. In many places, especially in British-influenced colonies like the United States, there were restrictions on people of color owning slaves and agricultural land. Nonetheless, many free coloreds lived in the countryside and some became major slaveholders. Many lived on or near the plantations where they or their ancestors had been slaves, and where they had extended family. Masters often used free coloreds for plantation managers, especially if there was a family relationship.[6]

Free coloreds also often served the government as rural police, hunting down runaway slaves and keeping order among the slave population. From the view of the white master class, this was their most important function and a critical one in places like Haiti or Jamaica where enslaved people on large plantations vastly outnumbered whites.[7]

In places where law or social custom permitted it, some free coloreds managed to acquire good agricultural land and slaves and become planters themselves. There were free colored-owned plantations in almost all the slave societies of the Americas. In the United States, free people of color may have owned the most property in Louisiana, which had developed a distinct creole class. Slaveholders who had relationships with women of color sometimes also arranged for a transfer of wealth to them, whether through deed of land and property to the mother and/or children under the system of plaçage, or arranging for an apprenticeship to a trade for his mixed-race children, which provided them more of a chance to make a skilled living. In St. Domingue/Haiti gens de couleur owned about one-third of the land and about one-quarter of the slaves in the late colonial period.[8]

[edit] Post-slavery

This article is missing citations or needs footnotes. Please help add inline citations to guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. (May 2008)

When the end of slavery came, the distinction between former free coloreds and former slaves persisted. Because of advantages in education and experience, free coloreds often provided much of the leadership for the newly freed, as in Haiti where Toussaint Louverture, the national liberator, and several of his top generals were former free coloreds. Similarly, in the United States, many of the blacks elected as state and local officials during Reconstruction in the South had been free in the South before the Civil War.[9] In addition, educated blacks whose families had long been free in the North went to the South to work and help the freedmen.

[edit] Notable free people of color

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ “French Speaking ‘Hommes de Couleur Libre’ Left Indelible Mark on the Culture and Development of the French Quarter”, FrenchQuarter.com. Retrieved 5/10/08.
  2. ^ Beale, Roberts. Letter. 1829, Original at National Archives, Washington, DC. Digital version found at Decatur House. “Charlotte Dupuy’s Petition”, ‘Half Had Not Been Told to Me’, African American History on Lafayette Square. Last Accessed March 15, 2009
  3. ^ Book announcement listed on Rutgers University English Department Faculty profile page accessed at http://english.rutgers.edu/faculty/profiles/wong.html
  4. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, accessed 15 Feb 2008
  5. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1999, 7th printing, p.82
  6. ^ Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South (The New Press, 1974 and 2007)
  7. ^ King, Stewart. Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-revolutionary Saint Domingue. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000, Chapter 4.
  8. ^ King, Stewart. Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-revolutionary Saint Domingue. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000, chapter 6.
  9. ^ Heritage of Freedom: Free People of Color in the Americas, 1492-1900. New York: Facts on File, 2010.

[edit] External links

See the Feast of All Saints by Anne Rice

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